A Standard can be defined as a set of technical definitions and guidelines – or simply a “how to” instructions for engineers and manufacturers. It gives all the necessary requirements for the product, service, and operation.
While an engineer uses the standard to design the system, a manufacturer uses the standard for the manufacturing of operational equipment.
Standard serves as a common language for defining quality and establishing safety criteria for products. ASTM, API, ISO, ASHRAE and IIAR are some examples of the organizations that create standard. ASTM has more than 12,000 standards that cover almost everything. Whereas IIAR, ASHRAE, and ASME predominantly develop the standards for the ammonia refrigeration industry.